Dr. John MacArthur gave a wonderful series of sermons that describe in great detail the core Doctrines of Grace (Calvinism). The very simplistic headings should give a basic idea of each of the points of Calvinism.

Total Depravity - This means that sin has totally corrupted the mind and will, so that a man cannot save himself. He is dead in his sins not just injured and therefore needs resurrected - not healed.
       
  The Doctrine of Absolute Inability October 24, 2004 Listen
       
Unconditional Election - God chooses to save people unconditionally; that is, they are not chosen on the basis of their own merit. Salvation is God's choice - not man's.
       
  The Doctrine of Election, Part 1 September 19, 2004 Listen
  The Doctrine of Election, Part 2 September 26, 2004 Listen
  The Doctrine of Election, Part 3 October 17, 2004 Listen
 
Limited Atonement - The sacrifice of Christ on the cross was for the purpose of saving the elect and does not apply universally. This is the most controversial aspect of the doctrines of Calvinism.
       
  The Doctrine of Actual Atonement, Part 1 November 07, 2004 Listen
  The Doctrine of Actual Atonement, Part 2 November 14, 2004 Listen
       
Irresistible Grace - When God has chosen to save someone, He will. The Holy Spirit opens the eyes of the elect so they may receive the gift of salvation. Man has a free will, but his will can not (will not) choose God without divine quickening of the spirit.
       
  The Doctrine of God's Effectual Call September 18, 2005 Listen
       
Perseverance of the Saints - Those people God chooses cannot lose their salvation; they will continue to believe.
       
  The Perseverance of the Saints, Part 1 August 29, 2004 Listen
  The Perseverance of the Saints, Part 2 September 05, 2004 Listen
  The Perseverance of the Saints, Part 3 September 12, 2004 Listen


These sermons are available as a series called "Doctrines of Grace" and are available free from the Grace to You website. The entire sermon series can be purchased here.